A urologist is a surgeon whereas a nephrologist is a physician.
Urologists take care of conditions affecting the male genitalia and the male reproductive system. A urologist also takes care of conditions affecting the urinary system in both men and women.
Common problems that warrant a visit to the urologist would be kidney stones, enlarged prostates causing urinary symptoms, and urinary incontinence in both men and women.
We also treat cancers of the prostate, kidneys, bladder, and testicles. We operate on these patients using open surgical techniques as well as minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic keyhole surgeries. In certain conditions, these keyhole surgeries are robotic-assisted.
Male subfertility issues as well as sexual dysfunction (e.g. erectile dysfunction) in men are also conditions that urologists would treat.
Some of us urologists are also renal transplant surgeons.
Nephrologists or renal physicians are internal medicine specialists who deal with patients with kidney disease, renal impairment, and kidney failure.
It is not uncommon for a urologist to work together with a nephrologist in patients who would benefit from the combined expertise of a surgeon and a physician.