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Cardiology Profile Image

Cardiology

Cardiology deals with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. Heart disease leads to a significant number of deaths worldwide.

Heart Disease Definition:

Heart Disease/Cardiovascular disease refers to conditions that involve narrowed/blocked blood vessels, causing heart attacks. 

Heart Disease Includes:

  • Coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and heart attacks
  • Stroke
  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension

 Symptoms of Heart Disease:

  1. Chest Pain - Tightnes/Pressure in chest
  2. Stomach Pain - Burning or Indigestion-type of pain
  3. Feeling hot and sweating
  4. Leg pain - cramping sensation in calves
  5. Choking Sensation
  6. Irregular heartbeat
  7. Swollen ankles
  8. Exhaustion

Causes of Heart Disease

  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Lack of exercise
  • Obesity
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Poor diet
  • Excessive alcohol consumption

Risks that are difficult to prevent: 

  • Age - the risk of getting heart disease is proportional to one's age 
  • Genetics - Having relatives with heart disease increases the risk of heart disease being passed down 
  • Gender - Men are at a greater risk of having heart disease compared to women

Prevention of Heart Disease

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. Yet, it is estimated that 90% of heart disease is preventable. Prevention of atherosclerosis involves improving risk factors through: healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. Going for regular health screenings (Blood pressure/ Cholesterol levels/ Diabetes) is also a good habit to inculcate. 

Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial.

Heart palpitations are heartbeats that you suddenly notice. Your heart may feel like it's pounding heavily or beating irregularly for a few moments. Although they may seem worrying, the good news is that they are mostly harmless and are NOT a sign of a serious issue. If ...
31 Dec 2018
Hello, The very small risk of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) (unless if it is large) occurs when there is a blood clot (or air bubble, or deoxygenated blood) traverses through the PFO from right atrium to the left atrium. Normally the pressure in the left atrium is greater than the ...
2 May 2019
Atenolol belongs to a group of medication called Betablocker. Besides atenolol, there are also other medications belonging to this group. Such as: bisoprolol, metoprolol, nadolol, propranolol etc. There is also eye drop preparation that contains betablocker such as timolol ophthalm...
19 Mar 2019
Hi, Hypertensive retinopathy is more prevalent if the hypertension is uncontrolled. Moderate to severe hypertensive retinopathy most often occurs in patients with uncontrolled and longstanding hypertension. This could be due to the fact that patients may have discontinued ant...
3 Apr 2019
This is a common question that often confuses my patients, because they sound similar! An angiogram is merely a diagnostic tool used to reveal blockages in heart vessels. On the other hand, an angioplasty is a treatment that involves inserting heart stents to improve b...
16 Oct 2018
Thank you for your question. I respect the care and concern about your father and you must be very worried for him. I will do my best to give you sound advice. In my practice, we see patients just like your father with complex medical and systemic health issues , and a good num...
23 Nov 2018
Hi, Intravenous fluids play an important role in the management of many patients, especially if they are (1) dehydrated or not drinking well; (2) losing bodily fluids rapidly, eg through vomiting, diarrhoea, high fever or certain kidney diseases or other medical problems; (3) sho...
10 Jan 2019
First and foremost, I would strongly advise you to seek immediate medical/ dental attention in view of your chest tightness and breathlessness. That, on it's own warrants some urgent attention in my opinion. There are many other possible causes of those symptoms besides the den...
3 May 2018
Well, as I say to my patients, putting in the heart stent is just the start of a healing journey. Your real work starts now and it needs a consistent daily effort on your part (not just the first 3 months after angioplasty and then back to the old ways!!) Simple rules such as eat...
6 Aug 2018
Thank you for a very insightful and important question, the answer to which, interventional cardiologists such as myself have been battling with for the last few decades. Essentially, we can break up your question into three parts: Significance of the location of the narr...
1 Jun 2018
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