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Kidneys

Nephrology is the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to dialysis. Nephrology also studies systemic conditions that affect the kidneys, such as diabetes and autoimmune disease.

Overview

History and physical examination are central to the diagnostic workup in nephrology.

The history typically includes the present illness, family history, general medical history, diet, medication use, drug use and occupation.

The physical examination typically includes an assessment of volume state, blood pressure, heart, lungs, peripheral arteries, joints, abdomen and flank.

Treatment

Kidney problems can have significant impact on quality and length of life, and so psychological support, health education and advanced care planning play key roles in nephrology.

When the kidneys are no longer able to sustain the demands of the body, end-stage kidney failure is said to have occurred.

Without dialysis, death from kidney failure will eventually result. Dialysis is an artificial method of replacing some kidney function to prolong life.

At present, renal transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney failure although its worldwide availability is limited by lack of availability of donor organs. 

Spironolactone (Aldactone) costs about S$1.00 or more per tablet. Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt and keeps your potassium levels from getting too low. In fact, it is primarily used to treat: ...
6 Nov 2019

How Are Kidney Stones Treated with TCM?

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Kidneys are one of the important organs in our body. Clinically, many patients seek help from TCM to manage their kidney issues such as proteinuria and kidney stones etc.

During consultation, TCM physicians will first diagnose the patients by asking a series of question, looking at the tongue and taking the pulse. Common diagnosis for kidney diseases are dampness, heat-dampness, kidney qi or yin deficiency. According to the patient’s condition and body constitution, the TCM physician will prescribe herbal medicine and/or administer acupuncture for the patient.

78 views 1 Nov 2019
UTI or urinary tract infections are broadly divided into upper tract and lower tract infections. The lower tract consists of the urethra, bladder and the prostate and seminal vesicles (in men). The upper tract consists of the ureters and the kidneys. Lower tract UTI would usually...
21 Oct 2019
The normal range for potassium in the blood is approximately 3.5 to 5.2 mmol/L , though these values can vary slightly between different laboratories and countries. Hypokalaemia or low levels of potassium can occur for many reasons. Commonly, this occurs due to losses from the...
31 Aug 2019
An Xray of the Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder (KUB Xray) is done to look for stones, which may cause UTI or symptoms similar to UTI such as pain on passing urine or abdominal pain. Biofilms are a collection of microorganism on a surface. Their formation begins when free-floating bacteria come in co...
22 Aug 2019
I presume you are referring to a kidney cortical cyst. A cyst is like a bubble and cortical cyst means it arises from the cortex of the kidney, which is in a way the more superficial aspect of the kidney. Cysts can either be simple and complex. When we refer to a cyst as being com...
21 Aug 2019
Medications to treat kidneys stones are used for 2 purposes Dissolving uric acid stones Prevention of recurrence of kidneys stones Dissolution of stones Kidneys stones are made of various mineral compositions. 5-10% of kidneys stones are composed of uric acid. O...
9 Aug 2019
First, I would want to exclude an anatomical abnormality . They can cause obstruction and predispose to stone formation. This can be done with a CT scan or intravenous urogram. Metabolic abnormalities and dietary imbalance can also cause recurrent stones. Excessiv...
6 Aug 2019
Kidney cysts can be divided into simple and complex cysts . They are usually asymptomatic , except when complicated by hemorrhage, infection, or rupture. Occasionally, these lead to the development of complex cysts with: calcification demarcation irregularities ...
7 Jul 2019
Although this question is best answered by a renal dietician or nutritionist, there are some dietary guidelines to follow for renal patients. Dialysis patients should eat more high protein foods and reduce their intake of salt, potassium and phosphorus . They can also take a...
7 Jul 2019
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Disclaimer: Any answers provided are for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment.

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Disclaimer: Any answers provided are for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment.

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