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Nephrology Profile Image

Nephrology

Nephrology is the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to dialysis. Nephrology also studies systemic conditions that affect the kidneys, such as diabetes and autoimmune disease.

Overview

History and physical examination are central to the diagnostic workup in nephrology.

The history typically includes the present illness, family history, general medical history, diet, medication use, drug use and occupation.

The physical examination typically includes an assessment of volume state, blood pressure, heart, lungs, peripheral arteries, joints, abdomen and flank.

Treatment

Kidney problems can have significant impact on quality and length of life, and so psychological support, health education and advanced care planning play key roles in nephrology.

When the kidneys are no longer able to sustain the demands of the body, end-stage kidney failure is said to have occurred.

Without dialysis, death from kidney failure will eventually result. Dialysis is an artificial method of replacing some kidney function to prolong life.

At present, renal transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney failure although its worldwide availability is limited by lack of availability of donor organs. 

A urologist is a surgeon whereas a nephrologist is a physician. Urologists take care of conditions affecting the male genitalia and the male reproductive system. A urologist also takes care of conditions affecting the urinary system in both men and women. Common problems that wa...
9 May 2019
Hi, When there is discoloration of urine it is ideal to figure out if that could be a normal response to dehydration, when the urine is more concentrated and either dark yellow or almost brown. If this indeed happens when you do not drink sufficient water, just try to hydrate yourself better....
25 Mar 2019
Bubbles in the urine is not a specific sign of urinary problems. However, bubbles in the urine can be due to excessive protein in the urine and this can be due to kidney diseases. Aches on the side of the torso can also be due to inflammation or infection of the kidney.
29 Mar 2019
Sorry to hear about the very sad news. From the context of the links provided, crush syndrome and reperfusion injury seems likely to be the main reason for the expected complications and sudden deterioration. What is Crush Syndrome? Crush Syndrome was first described in...
26 Jan 2019
Hello, Without knowing all the pertinent details, it sounds like your relative has been advised to go for a kidney biopsy procedure to find out the cause for the protein leakage, which seems like it has faced a sudden jump in a relatively short period of time (ie 2 months). A ...
26 Jan 2018
Hi, Intravenous fluids play an important role in the management of many patients, especially if they are (1) dehydrated or not drinking well; (2) losing bodily fluids rapidly, eg through vomiting, diarrhoea, high fever or certain kidney diseases or other medical problems; (3) sho...
10 Jan 2019
Some of the factors that affect the long term prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy depends on the findings at presentation. If the kidney function is normal, blood pressure is normal and the protein leakage is minimal (less than 0.5 g per day) they do have a good prognosis. ...
26 Feb 2019
Hi, Pain is the main concern of patients opting for or considering haemodialysis. Indeed, the needle insertion can be painful. We can use creams with a painkiller to be applied on the area for needling beforehand to reduce the pain. Once the needle is in place, typically is no...
29 Oct 2018
Hi, I would presume you are referring to the normal weight but metabolically obese individuals, i.e. people who are not defined as obese by BMI or weight but have features of the so-called metabolic syndrome (high lipids, high sugar, insulin resistance, high uric acid, high blood...
31 Aug 2018
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